Tuesday, April 05, 2005

Girardin, émile De

The illegitimate son of Count Alexandre de Girardin by the wife of a Parisian lawyer, he took his father's name upon the publication of his first work, an autobiographical novel Émile (1827). In 1828 he founded his

Monday, April 04, 2005

Pacific Ocean, Economic aspects

A detailed review of Pacific Ocean minerals, including those contained in seawater and those on or beneath the ocean floor, is offered in G.P. Glasby, “Marine Minerals in the Pacific,” Oceanography and Marine Biology 24:1–64 (1986). Information on economic and other resources of the ocean areas is also found in such works as Asia & Oceania, vol. 4 of the Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations, 7th ed., 5 vol. (1988); Fillmore C.F. Earney, Marine Mineral Resources (1990); and FAO Yearbook: Fishery Statistics. John P. Craven, The Management of Pacific Marine Resources (1982), offers well-written, scholarly coverage of resources and their management, or in some cases mismanagement; details on fisheries, shipping, scientific research, and maritime law are given in Edward Miles et al., The Management of Marine Regions: The North Pacific (1982); and Peter N. Nemetz (ed.), The Pacific Rim (1987), studies commerce, economic conditions, foreign investments, and resources in the Pacific Rim countries. Another valuable overview of economic conditions, international business enterprises, marine resources, and regionalism is Endel-Jacob Kolde, The Pacific Quest: The Concept and Scope of an Oceanic Community (1976); and Henry S. Albinski et al., The South Pacific (1989), studies the “New Pacific” and the economic, political, and social problems of island nations that have achieved independence since World War II.

Gymkhana

Originally in 19th-century India and England, a display of athletics and equestrian events; in the 20th century, also a form of automobile sport in which a series of events is planned to test driving skill and demonstrate accurate car handling. Auto gymkhanas usually are held on parking lots on which a series of short but intricate courses are laid out. A typical event is

Sunday, April 03, 2005

Córdoba, Mosque-cathedral Of

The original structure was built by the Umayyad ruler 'Abd ar-Rahman I in 784–786 with extensions in the 9th and 10th centuries that doubled its size, ultimately making it one of the largest sacred buildings in the Islamic world. The ground plan of the completed building forms a vast rectangle

Saturday, April 02, 2005

Baratynsky, Yevgeny Abramovich

Of noble parentage, Baratynsky was expelled from the imperial corps of pages, entered the army, was commissioned,

Haas, Ernst

Haas's youthful interests were divided between medicine and painting, but after World War II he abandoned both in favour of photography. His early photographs were experimentations in abstract light and form. When

Friday, April 01, 2005

Ra–shalom

Asteroid whose orbit is the smallest of any such object so far discovered; it takes only 278 days to circle the Sun. Ra–Shalom was detected in 1978 by Eleanor Helin, a U.S. planetary scientist, at a distance of 29,000,000 kilometres (18,000,000 miles) from the Earth in a region of the solar system that was previously thought to be swept clean of asteroids. It measures about 4 km (2.5 mi) in diameter and is the largest

Belinsky, Vissarion Grigoryevich

The son of a provincial doctor, Belinsky was expelled from the University of Moscow (1832) and earned his living thereafter as a journalist. His first substantial critical articles were part

Thursday, March 31, 2005

Ekibastuz

City and major opencut coal-mining centre in northeastern Kazakstan, on the Ertis-Qaraghandy Canal. Coal was discovered in the region in 1876 and was mined on a small scale. Only after construction of a railway in 1953 did large-scale exploitation of Ekibastuz' rich but low-grade coal seams begin. In the 1970s Ekibastuz was the third largest coal-mining centre in the Soviet Union,

Wednesday, March 30, 2005

Accent

Accent has various

Reproductive System, Animal, Annelids and mollusks

Annelids have a well-developed body cavity (coelom), a part of the lining of which gives rise to gonads. In some annelids, gonads occur in several successive body segments. This is true, for example, in polychaetes, most of which are dioecious. Testes and ovaries usually develop, though not invariably, in many body segments; and the sperm and eggs, often in enormous numbers,